Some facts about pipes
Pipes are commonly joined by welding, using threaded pipe and fittings; sealing the connection with a pipe thread compound, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thread seal tape, oakum, or PTFE string, or by using a mechanical coupling. Process piping is usually joined by welding using a TIG or MIG process. The most common process pipe joint is the butt weld. The ends of pipe to be welded must have a certain weld preparation called an End Weld Prep (EWP) which is typically at an angle of 37.5 degrees to accommodate the filler weld metal. The most common pipe thread in North America is the National Pipe Thread (NPT) or the Dryseal (NPTF) version. Other pipe threads include the British standard pipe thread (BSPT), the garden hose thread (GHT), and the fire hose coupling (NST).
Copper pipes are typically joined by soldering, brazing, compression fittings, flaring, or crimping. Plastic pipes may be joined by solvent welding, heat fusion, or elastomeric sealing.
If frequent disconnection will be required, gasketed pipe flanges or union fittings provide better reliability than threads. Some thin-walled pipes of ductile material, such as the smaller copper or flexible plastic water pipes found in homes for ice makers and humidifiers, for example, may be joined with compression fittings.
Underground pipe typically uses a "push-on" gasket style of pipe that compresses a gasket into a space formed between the two adjoining pieces. Push-on joints are available on most types of pipe. A pipe joint lubricant must be used in the assembly of the pipe. Under buried conditions, gasket-joint pipes allow for lateral movement due to soil shifting as well as expansion/contraction due to temperature differentials.11 Plastic MDPE and HDPE gas and water pipes are also often joined with Electrofusion fittings.
Large above ground pipe typically uses a flanged joint, which is generally available in ductile iron pipe and some others. It is a gasket style where the flanges of the adjoining pipes are bolted together, compressing the gasket into a space between the pipe.
Mechanical grooved couplings or Victaulic joints are also frequently used for frequent disassembly and assembly. Developed in the 1920s, these mechanical grooved couplings can operate up to 120 pounds per square inch (830 kPa) working pressures and available in materials to match the pipe grade. Another type of mechanical coupling is a Swagelok brand fitting; this type of compression fitting is typically used on small tubing under 0.75 inches (19 mm) in diameter.
When pipes join in chambers where other components are needed for the management of the network (such as valves or gauges), dismantling joints are generally used, in order to make mounting/dismounting easier.
Drain cleaner - chemical
Chemical drain cleaners can be in solid or liquid form that are readily available through hardware stores, though some (primarily acidic ones) are intended for use by licensed plumbers.1
Alkaline drain openers
Bottles of alkaline drain cleaners containing sodium hydroxide can dissolve greases and hair.
Alkaline drain openers primarily contain sodium hydroxide and some may contain potassium hydroxide. They may appear in liquid or solid form.
Liquid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners can contain sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and lye (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) in concentrations up to 50 percent. Other corrosive mixtures come as two-part cleaners that are mixed as they are poured in the drain opening. Inside the drain the two solutions react to release a gas, and surfactants trap the gas as dense foam. The intent of this foaming action is to coat the inside of the drain pipe to dislodge more of the substances that form the clog.
Solid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners in the form of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide granules can provide more concentrated effective ingredients. Some patented, solid-formula cleaners add aluminum turnings that react with the solid hydroxide in water to heat the caustic mixture to a boil.
Alkaline drain openers can dissolve hair (containing proteins) and fats inside pipes via alkaline hydrolysis of amide and ester respectively:
RCONH2(amide or proteins)+ OH? ? NH3 + RCOO?
RCO2R?(ester or fats)+ OH? ? R'OH + RCOO?
Getting too much water for washing
Each of us may be surprised by a sudden increase in bills for consumed water. Then we begin to look for its causes. Establishing such reasons may not be straight, even though access to some of them is made possible by the establishment of independent observations. This is an example where the cause of the suspiciously large bills for consumed water is getting through the washing machine too much water. Then, to improve our household budget can allow repair washing machines made by a plumber. During his visit he may also review the hydraulic in the bathroom, which may help to detect some additional problems. Such a problem can be a water leak.